A Description of the Island of Jambudvipa
kimpuruse varse bhagavantam adi-purusam laksmanagrajam sitabhiramam ramam tac-carana-sannikarsabhiratah parama-bhagavato hanuman saha kimpurusair avirata-bhaktir upaste.
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued to speak; kimpuruse varse--the tract of land known as Kimpurusa; bhagavantam--the Supreme personality of Godhead; adi-purusam--the original cause of all causes; laksmana-agra-jam--the elder brother of Laksmana; sita-abhiramam--who is very pleasing to mother Sita, or who is the husband of Sitadevi; ramam--Lord Ramacandra; tat-carana-sannikarsa-abhiratah--one always engaged in service at the lotus feet of Lord Ramacandra; parama-bhagavatah--the great devotee celebrated throughout the universe; hanuman--His Grace Hanumanji; saha--with; kimpurusaih--the inhabitants of the tract of land known as Kimpurusa; avirata--continuous; bhaktih--who possesses devotional service; upaste--worships.
Srila Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King, in Kimpurusa-varsa the great devotee Hanuman is always engaged with the inhabitants of that land in devotional service to Lord Ramacandra, the elder brother of Laksmana and dear husband of Sitadevi.
arstisenena saha gandharvair anugiyamanam parama-kalyanim bhartr-bhagavat-katham samupasrnoti svayam cedam gayati.
arsti-senena--Arstisena, the chief personality of Kimpurusa-varsa; saha--with; gandharvaih--by a company of Gandharvas; anugiyamanam--being chanted; parama-kalyanim--most auspicious; bhartr-bhagavat-katham--the glories of his master, who is also the Supreme Personality of Godhead; samupasrnoti--he hears with great attention; svayam ca--and personally; idam--this; gayati--chants.
A host of Gandharvas is always engaged in chanting the glories of Lord Ramacandra. That chanting is always extremely auspicious. Hanumanji and Arstisena, the chief person in Kimpurusa-varsa, constantly hear those glories with complete attention. Hanuman chants the following mantras.
In the Puranas there are two different opinions concerning Lord Ramacandra. In the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (5.34-36) this is confirmed in the description of the incarnation of Manu.
padme tu ramo bhagavan
sesas cakram ca sankhas ca
kramat syur laksmanadayah
pure 'sya vasatih smrta
The Visnu-dharmottara describes that Lord Ramacandra and His brothers--Laksmana, Bharata and Satrughna--are incarnations of Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha respectively. The Padma Purana, however, says that Lord Ramacandra is an incarnation of Narayana and that the other three brothers are incarnations of Sesa, Cakra and Sankha. Therefore Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana has concluded, tad idam kalpa-bhedenaiva sambhavyam. In other words, these opinions are not contradictory. In some millenniums Lord Ramacandra and His brothers appear as incarnations of Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, and in other millenniums They appear as incarnations of Narayana, Sesa, Cakra and Sankha. The residence of Lord Ramacandra on this planet is Ayodhya. Ayodhya City is still existing in the district of Hyderabad, which is situated on the northern side of Uttar Pradesh.
om namo bhagavate uttamaslokaya nama arya-laksana-sila-vrataya nama upasiksitatmana upasita-lokaya namah sadhu-vada-nikasanaya namo brahmanya-devaya maha-purusaya maha-rajaya nama iti.
om--O my Lord; namah--my respectful obeisances; bhagavate--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; uttama-slokaya--who is always worshiped with selected verses; namah--my respectful obeisances; arya-laksana-sila-vrataya--who possesses all the good qualities of advanced personalities; namah--my respectful obeisances; upasiksita-atmane--unto You whose senses are under control; upasita-lokaya--who is always remembered and worshiped by all the different classes of living entities; namah--my respectful obeisances; sadhu-vada-nikasanaya--to the Lord, who is like a stone for examining all the good qualities of a sadhu; namah--my respectful obeisances; brahmanya-devaya--who is worshiped by the most qualified brahmanas; maha-purusaya--unto the Supreme Lord, who is worshiped by the purusa-sukta because of being the cause of this material creation; maha-rajaya--unto the supreme king, or the king of all kings; namah--my respectful obeisances; iti--thus.
Let me please Your Lordship by chanting the bija-mantra omkara. I wish to offer my respectful obeisances unto the Personality of Godhead, who is the best among the most highly elevated personalities. Your Lordship is the reservoir of all the good qualities of Aryans, people who are advanced. Your character and behavior are always consistent, and You always control Your senses and mind. Acting just like an ordinary human being, You exhibit exemplary character to teach others how to behave. There is a touchstone that can be used to examine the quality of gold, but You are like a touchstone that can verify all good qualities. You are worshiped by brahmanas who are the foremost of all devotees. You, the Supreme Person, are the King of kings, and therefore I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.
yat tad visuddhanubhava-matram ekam
pratyak prasantam sudhiyopalambhanam
hy anama-rupam niraham prapadye
yat--which; tat--to that supreme truth; visuddha--transcendentally pure, without contamination by material nature; anubhava--experience; matram--that sac-cid-ananda transcendental body; ekam--the one; sva-tejasa--by His own spiritual potency; dhvasta--vanquished; guna-vyavastham--the influence of the modes of material nature; pratyak--transcendental, not to be seen with material eyes; prasantam--undisturbed by material agitation; sudhiya--by Krsna consciousness, or purified consciousness, uncontaminated by material desires, fruitive activities and speculative philosophy; upalambhanam--who can be achieved; hi--indeed; anama-rupam--without a material name and form; niraham--without a material ego; prapadye--let me offer my respectful obeisances.
The Lord, whose pure form [sac-cid-ananda-vigraha] is uncontaminated by the modes of material nature, can be perceived by pure consciousness. In the Vedanta He is described as being one without a second. Because of His spiritual potency, He is untouched by the contamination of material nature, and because He is not subjected to material vision, He is known as transcendental. He has no material activities, nor has He a material form or name. Only in pure consciousness, Krsna consciousness, can one perceive the transcendental form of the Lord. Let us be firmly fixed at the lotus feet of Lord Ramacandra, and let us offer our respectful obeisances unto those transcendental lotus feet.
The Supreme personality of Godhead, Krsna, appears in various expansions, as stated in the Brahma-samhita (5.39):
ramadi-murtisu kala-niyamena tisthan
nanavataram akarod bhuvanesu kintu
krsnah svayam samabhavat paramah puman yo
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
"I worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, who is always situated in various incarnations such as Rama, Nrsimha and many subincarnations as well, but who is the original personality of Godhead known as Krsna and who incarnates personally also." Krsna, who is visnu-tattva, has expanded Himself in many Visnu forms, of which Lord Ramacandra is one. We know that the visnu-tattva is carried by the transcendental bird Garuda and is equipped with different types of weapons in four hands. Therefore we may doubt whether Lord Ramacandra could be in the same category, since He was carried by Hanuman, not by Garuda, and had neither four hands nor the sankha, cakra, gada and padma. Consequently this verse clarifies that Ramacandra is as good as Krsna (ramadi-murtisu kala). Although Krsna is the original Supreme personality of Godhead, Ramacandra is not different from Him. Ramacandra is unaffected by the modes of material nature, and therefore He is prasanta, never disturbed by those modes.
Unless one is saturated with love for the Supreme personality of Godhead, one cannot appreciate the transcendental value of Lord Ramacandra; one cannot see Him with material eyes. Because demons like Ravana have no spiritual vision, they consider Lord Ramacandra an ordinary ksatriya king. Ravana therefore attempted to kidnap Lord Ramacandra's eternal consort, Sitadevi. Actually, however, Ravana could not carry off Sitadevi in her original form. As soon as she was touched by Ravana's hands, she gave him a material form, but she maintained her original form beyond his vision. Therefore in this verse the words pratyak prasantam indicate that Lord Ramacandra and His potency, the goddess Sita, keep themselves aloof from the influence of the material energy.
In the Upanisads it is said: yam evaisa vrnute tena labhyah. The Supreme Lord, Paramatma, the Personality of Godhead, can be seen or perceived only by persons who are saturated with devotional service. As stated in the Brahma-samhita (5.38):
santah sadaiva hrdayesu vilokayanti
yam syamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupam
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
"I worship the primeval Lord, Govinda, who is always seen by the devotee whose eyes are anointed with the pulp of love. He is seen in His eternal form of Syamasundara, situated within the heart of the devotee." Similarly, in the Chandogya Upanisad it is stated, etas tisro devata anena jivena. In this verse of the Chandogya Upanisad the word anena is used to distinguish the atma and Paramatma as two separate identities. The words tisro devata indicate that the body of the living entity is made of three material elements--fire, earth and water. Although the Paramatma enters the heart of the jivatma, who is influenced and designated by a material body, the Paramatma has nothing to do with the jivatma's body. Because the Paramatma has no material connections, He is described here as anama-rupam niraham. The Paramatma has no material identity, whereas the jivatma does. The jivatma may introduce himself as an Indian, American, German and so on, but the Paramatma has no such material designations, and therefore He has no material name. The jivatma is different from his name, but the Paramatma is not; His name and He Himself are one and the same. This is the meaning of niraham, which means "without material designations." This word cannot possibly be twisted to mean that the Paramatma has no ahankara, no "I-ness" or identity. He has His transcendental identity as the Supreme. This is the explanation given by Srila Jiva Gosvami. According to another interpretation, given by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura, niraham means nirniscayena aham. Niraham does not mean that the Supreme Lord has no identity. Rather, the stress given by the word aham proves strongly that He does have His personal identity because nir not only means "negative" but also means "strong ascertainment."
martyavataras tv iha martya-siksanam
rakso-vadhayaiva na kevalam vibhoh
kuto 'nyatha syad ramatah sva atmanah
martya--as a human being; avatarah--whose incarnation; tu--however; iha--in the material world; martya-siksanam--for teaching all the living entities, especially human beings; raksah-vadhaya--to kill the demon Ravana; eva--certainly; na--not; kevalam--only; vibhoh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kutah--from where; anyatha--otherwise; syat--there would be; ramatah--of one enjoying; sve--in Himself; atmanah--the spiritual identity of the universe; sita--of the wife of Lord Ramacandra; krtani--appearing due to the separation; vyasanani--all the miseries; isvarasya--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
It was ordained that Ravana, chief of the Raksasas, could not be killed by anyone but a man, and for this reason Lord Ramacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appeared in the form of a human being. Lord Ramacandra's mission, however, was not only to kill Ravana but also to teach mortal beings that material happiness centered around sex life or centered around one's wife is the cause of many miseries. He is the self-sufficient Supreme Personality of Godhead, and nothing is lamentable for Him. Therefore why else could He be subjected to tribulations by the kidnapping of mother Sita?
When the Lord appears in this universe in the form of a human being, He has two purposes, as stated in Bhagavad-gita (4.9)--paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam: to destroy the demons and protect the devotees. To protect the devotees, the Lord not only satisfies them by His personal presence but also teaches them so that they will not fall down from devotional service. By His personal example, Lord Ramacandra taught the devotees that it is better not to enter married life, which is certainly followed by many tribulations. As confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam (7.9.45):
yan maithunadi-grhamedhi-sukham hi tuccham
kanduyanena karayor iva duhkha-duhkham
trpyanti neha krpana bahu-duhkha-bhajah
kandutivan manasijam visaheta-dhirah
Krpanas, those who are not advanced in spiritual knowledge and who are therefore just the opposite of brahmanas, generally take to family life, which is a concession for sex. Thus they enjoy sex again and again, although that sex is followed by many tribulations. This is a warning to devotees. To teach this lesson to devotees and to human society in general, Lord Sri Ramacandra, although the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, underwent a series of tribulations because He accepted a wife, mother Sita. Lord Ramacandra underwent these austerities, of course, only to instruct us; actually He never has any reason to lament for anything.
Another aspect of the Lord's instructions is that one who accepts a wife must be a faithful husband and give her full protection. Human society is divided into two classes of men--those who strictly follow the religious principles and those who are devotees. By His personal example, Lord Ramacandra wanted to instruct both of them how to fully adopt the discipline of the religious system and how to be a beloved and dutiful husband. Otherwise He had no reason to undergo apparent tribulations. One who strictly follows religious principles must not neglect to provide all facilities for the complete protection of his wife. There may be some suffering because of this, but one must nevertheless endure it. That is the duty of a faithful husband. By His personal example, Lord Ramacandra demonstrated this duty. Lord Ramacandra could have produced hundreds and thousands of Sitas from His pleasure energy, but just to show the duty of a faithful husband, He not only rescued Sita from the hands of Ravana but also killed Ravana and all the members of his family.
Another aspect of the teachings of Lord Ramacandra is that although Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and His devotees may apparently suffer from material tribulations, they have nothing to do with such tribulations. They are mukta-purusas, liberated persons, under all circumstances. It is therefore said in the Caitanya-bhagavata:
yata dekha vaisnavera vyavahara duhkha
niscaya janiha taha paramananda-sukha
A Vaisnava is always firmly situated in transcendental bliss because of engagement in devotional service. Although he may appear to suffer material pains, his position is called transcendental bliss in separation (viraha). The emotions a lover and beloved feel when separated from one another are actually very blissful, although apparently painful. Therefore the separation of Lord Ramacandra from Sitadevi, as well as the consequent tribulation they suffered, is but another display of transcendental bliss. That is the opinion of Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura.
na vai sa atmatmavatam suhrttamah
saktas tri-lokyam bhagavan vasudevah
na stri-krtam kasmalam asnuvita
na laksmanam capi vihatum arhati
na--not; vai--indeed; sah--He; atma--the Supreme Soul; atmavatam--of the self-realized souls; suhrt-tamah--the best friend; saktah--attached; tri-lokyam--to anything within the three worlds; bhagavan--the Supreme personality of Godhead; vasudevah--the all-pervading Lord; na--not; stri-krtam--obtained because of His wife; kasmalam--sufferings of separation; asnuvita--would obtain; na--not; laksmanam--His younger brother Laksmana; ca--also; api--certainly; vihatum--to give up; arhati--be able.
Since Lord Sri Ramacandra is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vasudeva, He is not attached to anything in this material world. He is the most beloved Supersoul of all self-realized souls, and He is their very intimate friend. He is full of all opulences. Therefore He could not possibly have suffered because of separation from His wife, nor could He have given up His wife and Laksmana, His younger brother. To give up either would have been absolutely impossible.
In defining the Supreme personality of Godhead, we say that He is full in all six opulences--wealth, fame, strength, influence, beauty and renunciation. He is called renounced because He is not attached to anything in this material world; He is specifically attached to the spiritual world and the living entities there. The affairs of the material world take place under the superintendence of Durgadevi (srsti-sthiti-pralaya-sadhana-saktir eka. chayeva yasya bhuvanani bibharti durga). Everything is going on under the strict rules and regulations of the material energy, represented by Durga. Therefore the Lord is completely detached and need not give attention to the material world. Sitadevi belongs to the spiritual world. Similarly, Lord Laksmana, Ramacandra's younger brother, is a manifestation of Sankarsana, and Lord Ramacandra Himself is Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Since the Lord is always spiritually qualified, He is attached to servants who always render transcendental loving service unto Him. He is attached to the truth in life, not to brahminical qualities. Indeed, He is never attached to any material qualities. Although He is the Supersoul of all living entities, He is specifically manifest to those who are self-realized, and He is especially dear to the hearts of His transcendental devotees. Because Lord Ramacandra descended to teach human society how dutiful a king should be, He apparently gave up the company of mother Sita and Laksmana. Factually, however, He could not have given them up. One should therefore learn about the activities of Lord Ramacandra from a self-realized soul. Then one can understand the transcendental activities of the Lord.
na janma nunam mahato na saubhagam
na van na buddhir nakrtis tosa-hetuh
tair yad visrstan api no vanaukasas
cakara sakhye bata laksmanagrajah
na--not; janma--birth in a very polished, aristocratic family; nunam--indeed; mahatah--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na--nor; saubhagam--great fortune; na--nor; vak--an elegant manner of speaking; na--nor; buddhih--sharpness of intelligence; na--not; akrtih--features of the body; tosa-hetuh--the cause of pleasure to the Lord; taih--by all those above-mentioned qualities; yat--because; visrstan--rejected; api--although; nah--us; vana-okasah--the inhabitants of the forest; cakara--accepted; sakhye--in friendship; bata--alas; laksmana-agra-jah--Lord Sri Ramacandra, the elder brother of Laksmana.
One cannot establish a friendship with the Supreme Lord Ramacandra on the basis of material qualities such as one's birth in an aristocratic family, one's personal beauty, one's eloquence, one's sharp intelligence or one's superior race or nation. None of these qualifications is actually a prerequisite for friendship with Lord Sri Ramacandra. Otherwise how is it possible that although we uncivilized inhabitants of the forest have not taken noble births, although we have no physical beauty and although we cannot speak like gentlemen, Lord Ramacandra has nevertheless accepted us as friends?
In a prayer to Krsna expressing her feelings, Srimati Kuntidevi called Him akincana-gocara. The prefix a means "not," and kincana "something of this material world." One may be very proud of his prestigious position, material wealth, beauty, education and so on, but although these are certainly good qualifications in material dealings, they are not necessary for achieving friendship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who possesses all these material qualities is expected to become a devotee, and when he actually does, the qualities are properly utilized. Those who are puffed up by a high birth, wealth, education and personal beauty (janmaisvarya-sruta-sri) unfortunately do not care for developing Krsna consciousness, nor does the Supreme Personality of Godhead care about all these material qualifications. The Supreme Lord is achieved by devotion (bhaktya mam abhijanati). One's devotion and sincere desire to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead are the only qualifications. Rupa Gosvami has also said that the price for achieving God's favor is simply one's sincere eagerness to have it (laulyam ekam mulyam). In the Caitanya-bhagavata it is said:
kholaveca sevakera dekha bhagya-sima
brahma siva kande yara dekhiya mahima
dhane jane panditye krsna nahi pai
kevala bhaktira vasa caitanya-gosani
"Behold the great fortune of the devotee Kholaveca. Lord Brahma and Siva shed tears upon seeing his greatness. One cannot attain Lord Krsna by any amount of wealth, followers, or learning. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is controlled only by pure devotion. "Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had a very sincere devotee whose name was Kholaveca Sridhara and whose only business was to sell pots made of the skin of banana trees. Whatever income he had, he used fifty percent for the worship of mother Ganges, and with the other fifty percent he provided for his necessities. On the whole, he was so very poor that he lived in a cottage that had a broken roof with many holes in it. He could not afford brass utensils, and therefore he drank water from an iron pot. Nevertheless, he was a great devotee of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He is a typical example of how a poor man with no material possessions can become a most exalted devotee of the Lord. The conclusion is that one cannot attain shelter at the lotus feet of Lord Krsna or Sri Caitanya Gosani through material opulence; that shelter is attainable only by pure devotional service.
silanam bhaktir uttama
"One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Krsna favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service."
suro 'suro vapy atha vanaro narah
sarvatmana yah sukrtajnam uttamam
bhajeta ramam manujakrtim harim
ya uttaran anayat kosalan divam iti
surah--demigod; asurah--demon; va api--or; atha--therefore; va--or; anarah--other than a human being (bird, beast, animal and so on); narah--a human being; sarva-atmana--wholeheartedly; yah--who; su-krtajnam--easily made grateful; uttamam--most highly elevated; bhajeta--should worship; ramam--Lord Ramacandra; manuja-akrtim--appearing as a human being; harim--the Supreme personality of Godhead; yah--who; uttaran--of northern India; anayat--brought back; kosalan--the inhabitants of Kosala-desa, Ayodhya; divam--to the spiritual world, Vaikuntha; iti--thus.
Therefore, whether one is a demigod or a demon, a man or a creature other than man, such as a beast or bird, everyone should worship Lord Ramacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears on this earth just like a human being. There is no need of great austerities or penances to worship the Lord, for Me accepts even a small service offered by His devotee. Thus He is satisfied, and as soon as He is satisfied, the devotee is successful. Indeed, Lord Sri Ramacandra brought all the devotees of Ayodhya back home, back to Godhead [Vaikuntha].
Lord Sri Ramacandra is so kind and merciful to His devotees that He is very easily satisfied by a little service rendered by anyone, human or not. This is the special advantage of worshiping Lord Ramacandra, and there is the same advantage in worshiping Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Lord Krsna and Lord Ramacandra, in the manner of ksatriyas, sometimes showed Their mercy by killing asuras, but Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu awarded love of God without difficulty even to the asuras. All the incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead--but especially Lord Ramacandra, Lord Krsna and, later, Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu--delivered many of the living entities present before Them, indeed almost all of them. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is therefore represented in the six-armed form of sad-bhuja-murti, which is a combination of Lord Ramacandra, Lord Krsna and Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The best purpose of human life can be fulfilled by worshiping the sad-bhuja-murti, the form of the Lord with six arms--two arms of Ramacandra, two arms of Krsna and two arms of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
bharate 'pi varse bhagavan nara-narayanakhya akalpantam upacita-dharma-jnana-vairagyaisvaryopasamoparamatmopalambhanam anugrahayatmavatam anukampaya tapo 'vyakta-gatis carati.
bharate--in Bharata; api--also; varse--the tract of land; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nara-narayana-akhyah--known as Nara-Narayana; a-kalpa-antam--up to the end of the millennium; upacita--increasing; dharma--religion; jnana--knowledge; vairagya--renunciation or nonattachment; aisvarya--mystic opulences; upasama--control of the senses; uparama--freedom from false ego; atma-upalambhanam--self-realization; anugrahaya--to show favor; atma-vatam--unto persons interested in self-realization; anukampaya--by causeless mercy; tapah--austerities; avyakta-gatih--whose glories are inconceivable; carati--executes.
[Sukadeva Gosvami continued:] The glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are inconceivable. He has appeared in the form of Nara-Narayana in the land of Bharata-varsa, at the place known as Badarikasrama, to favor His devotees by teaching them religion, knowledge, renunciation, spiritual power, sense control and freedom from false ego. He is advanced in the opulence of spiritual assets, and He engages in executing austerity until the end of this millennium. This is the process of self-realization.
People in India may visit the temple of Nara-Narayana at Badarikasrama just to learn how the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His incarnation as Nara-Narayana engages in austerities to teach the people of the world how to achieve self-realization. It is impossible to realize oneself simply by absorbing oneself in speculation and material activities. One must be very serious about self-realization and the practice of austerity. Unfortunately, the people of this age of Kali do not even know the meaning of austerity. Under these circumstances, the Lord has appeared as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to bestow upon the fallen souls the easiest method of self-realization, technically called ceto-darpana-marjanam, cleansing of the dirt from the core of one's heart. This method is extremely simple. Anyone can chant the glorious krsna-sankirtana--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. In this age there are different forms of so-called advanced scientific knowledge, such as anthropology, Marxism, Freudianism, nationalism and industrialism, but if we work very hard under their guidance instead of adopting the process practiced by Nara-Narayana, we shall waste our valuable human form of life. Thus we shall certainly be cheated and misled.
tam bhagavan narado varnasramavatibhir bharatibhih prajabhir bhagavat-proktabhyam sankhya-yogabhyam bhagavad-anubhavopavarnanam savarner upadeksyamanah parama-bhakti-bhavenopasarati idam cabhigrnati.
tam--Him (Nara-Narayana); bhagavan--the most powerful saintly person; naradah--the great sage Narada; varna-asrama-vatibhih--by followers of the institution of the four varnas and four asramas; bharatibhih--of the land known as Bharata-varsa (India); prajabhih--who are the inhabitants; bhagavat-proktabhyam--which was stated by the Supreme personality of Godhead; sankhya--by the sankhya-yoga system (the analytical study of material conditions); yogabhyam--by practice of the yoga system; bhagavat-anubhava-upavarnanam--which describes the process of God realization; savarneh--unto Savarni Manu; upadeksyamanah--instructing; parama-bhakti-bhavena--in greatly ecstatic loving service to the Lord; upasarati--serves the Lord; idam--this; ca--and; abhigrnati--chants.
In his own book, known as Narada Pancaratra, Bhagavan Narada has very vividly described how to work to achieve the ultimate goal of life--devotion--through knowledge and through execution of the mystic yoga system. He has also described the glories of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The great sage Narada instructed the tenets of this transcendental literature to Savarni Manu in order to teach those inhabitants of Bharata-varsa who strictly follow the principles of varnasrama-dharma how to achieve the devotional service of the Lord. Thus Narada Muni, along with the other inhabitants of Bharata-varsa, always engages in the service of Nara-Narayana, and he chants as follows.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has clearly declared:
bharata-bhumite haila manusya-janma yara
janma sarthaka kari' kara para-upakara
The real success or fulfillment of the mission of human life can be achieved in India, Bharata-varsa, because in Bharata-varsa the purpose of life and the method for achieving success are evident. People should take advantage of the opportunity afforded by Bharata-varsa, and this is especially so for those who are following the principles of varnasrama-dharma. If we do not take to the principles of varnasrama-dharma by accepting the four social orders (brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra) and the four orders of spiritual life (brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa), there can be no question of success in life. Unfortunately, because of the influence of Kali-yuga, everything is now being lost. The inhabitants of Bharata-varsa are gradually becoming degraded mlecchas and yavanas. How then will they teach others? Therefore, this Krsna consciousness movement has been started not only for the inhabitants of Bharata-varsa but for all the people of the world, as announced by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. There is still time, and if the inhabitants of Bharata-varsa take this movement of Krsna consciousness seriously, the entire world will be saved from gliding down to a hellish condition. The Krsna consciousness movement follows the process of pancaratrika-vidhi and that of bhagavata-vidhi simultaneously, so that people can take advantage of the movement and make their lives successful.
om namo bhagavate upasama-silayoparatanatmyaya namo 'kincana-vittaya rsi-rsabhaya nara-narayanaya paramahamsa-parama-gurave atmaramadhipataye namo nama iti.
om--O Supreme Lord; namah--my respectful obeisances; bhagavate--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; upasama-silaya--who has mastered the senses; uparata-anatmyaya--having no attachment for this material world; namah--my respectful obeisances; akincana-vittaya--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the only asset of persons who have no material possessions; rsi-rsabhaya--the most exalted of saintly persons; nara-narayanaya--Nara-Narayana; paramahamsa-parama-gurave--the most exalted spiritual master of all paramahamsas, liberated persons; atmarama-adhipataye--the best of self-realized persons; namah namah--my respectful obeisances again and again; iti--thus.
Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Nara-Narayana, the best of all saintly persons, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is the most self-controlled and self-realized, He is free from false prestige, and He is the asset of persons who have no material possessions. He is the spiritual master of all paramahamsas, who are the most exalted human beings, and He is the master of the self-realized. Let me offer my repeated obeisances at His lotus feet.
kartasya sargadisu yo na badhyate
na hanyate deha-gato 'pi daihikaih
drastur na drg yasya gunair vidusyate
tasmai namo 'sakta-vivikta-saksine
gayati--he sings; ca--and; idam--this; karta--the executor; asya--of this cosmic manifestation; sarga-adisu--of the creation, maintenance and destruction; yah--one who; na badhyate--is not attached as the creator, master or proprietor; na--not; hanyate--is victimized; deha-gatah api--although appearing as a human being; daihikaih--by bodily tribulations such as hunger, thirst and fatigue; drastuh--of Him who is the seer of everything; na--not; drk--the power of vision; yasya--of whom; gunaih--by the material qualities; vidusyate--is polluted; tasmai--unto Him; namah--my respectful obeisances; asakta--unto the Supreme person, who is unattached; vivikta--without affection; saksine--the witness of everything.
Narada, the most powerful saintly sage, also worships Nara-Narayana by chanting the following mantra: The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the master of the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this visible cosmic manifestation, yet He is completely free from false prestige. Although to the foolish He appears to have accepted a material body like us, He is unaffected by bodily tribulations like hunger, thirst and fatigue. Although He is the witness who sees everything, His senses are unpolluted by the objects He sees. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto that unattached, pure witness of the world, the Supreme Soul, the Personality of Godhead.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, is described as sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, the body of eternity, transcendental bliss and full knowledge. Now in this verse He is more fully described. Krsna is the creator of the entire cosmic manifestation, yet He is unattached to it. If we were to construct a very tall skyscraper, we would be very attached to it, but Krsna is so renounced that although He has created everything, He is not attached to anything (na badhyate). Furthermore, although Krsna has His transcendental form, sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, He is not disturbed by the bodily necessities of life, which are called daihika; for example, He is never hungry, thirsty or fatigued (na hanyate deha-gato 'pi daihikaih). Then again, since everything is Krsna's property, He sees everything and is present everywhere, but because His body is transcendental, He is above vision, the objects of vision and the process of vision. When we see someone beautiful, we are attracted. The sight of a beautiful woman immediately attracts a man, and the sight of a man naturally attracts a woman. Krsna, however, is transcendental to all these faults. Although He is the seer of everything, He is not afflicted with faulty vision (na drg yasya gunair vidusyate). Therefore, although He is the witness and seer, He is aloof from all affection for the activities He sees. He is always unattached and separate; He is only a witness.
idam hi yogesvara yoga-naipunam
hiranyagarbho bhagavan jagada yat
yad anta-kale tvayi nirgune mano
idam--this; hi--certainly; yoga-isvara--O my Lord, master of all mystic power; yoga-naipunam--the expert process of executing yogic principles; hiranya-garbhah--Lord Brahma; bhagavan--the most powerful; jagada--spoke; yat--which; yat--which; anta-kale--at the time of death; tvayi--in You; nirgune--the transcendence; manah--the mind; bhaktya--with a devotional attitude; dadhita--one should place; ujjhita-duskalevarah--having given up his identification with the material body.
O my Lord, master of all mystic yoga, this is the explanation of the yogic process spoken of by Lord Brahma [Hiranyagarbha], who is self-realized. At the time of death, all yogis give up the material body with full detachment simply by placing their minds at Your lotus feet. That is the perfection of yoga.
Srila Madhvacarya says:
yasya samyag bhagavati
jnanam bhaktis tathaiva ca
niscintas tasya moksah syat
sarva-papa-krto 'pi tu
"For one who very seriously practices devotional service during his lifetime in order to understand the constitutional position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, liberation from this material world is guaranteed, even if he has previously been addicted to sinful habits." This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita:
api cet su-duracaro
bhajate mam ananya-bhak
sadhur eva sa mantavyah
samyag vyavasito hi sah
"Even if one commits the most abominable actions, if he is engaged in devotional service he is to be considered saintly because he is properly situated." (Bg. 9.30) The only purpose of life is to be fully absorbed in thoughts of Krsna and His form, pastimes, activities and qualities. If one is able to think of Krsna in this way, twenty-four hours a day, he is already liberated (svarupena vyavasthitih). Whereas materialists are absorbed in material thoughts and activities, devotees, on the contrary, are always absorbed in thoughts of Krsna and Krsna's activities. Therefore they are already on the platform of liberation. One has to think of Krsna with full absorption at the time of death. Then he will certainly return home, back to Godhead, without a doubt.
sutesu daresu dhanesu cintayan
sanketa vidvan kukalevaratyayad
yas tasya yatnah srama eva kevalam
yatha--as; aihika--in the present life; amusmika--in the expected future life; kama-lampatah--a person who is very attached to lusty desires for bodily enjoyment; sutesu--children; daresu--wife; dhanesu--wealth; cintayan--thinking about; sanketa--is afraid; vidvan--a person advanced in spiritual knowledge; ku-kalevara--of this body, which is full of stool and urine; atyayat--because of loss; yah--anyone; tasya--his; yatnah--endeavors; sramah--a waste of time and energy; eva--certainly; kevalam--only.
Materialists are generally very attached to their present bodily comforts and to the bodily comforts they expect in the future. Therefore they are always absorbed in thoughts of their wives, children and wealth and are afraid of giving up their bodies, which are full of stool and urine. If a person engaged in Krsna consciousness, however, is also afraid of giving up his body, what is the use of his having labored to study the sastras? It was simply a waste of time.
At the time of death a materialist thinks of his wife and children. He is absorbed in thinking of how they will live and who will take care of them after he leaves. Consequently he is never prepared to give up his body; rather, he wants to continue to live in his body to serve his society, family, friends and so on. Therefore by practicing the mystic yoga system one must become detached from bodily relationships. If despite practicing bhakti-yoga and studying all the Vedic literature, one is afraid of giving up his bad body, which is the cause of all his suffering, what is the use of his attempts to advance in spiritual life? The secret of success in practicing yoga is to become free from bodily attachments. Srila Narottama dasa Thakura says, deha-smrti nahi yara, samsara-bandhana kahan tara: one whose practice has freed him from the anxieties of bodily needs is no longer in conditional life. Such a person is freed from conditional bondage. A person in Krsna consciousness must fully discharge his devotional duties without material attachment. Then his liberation is guaranteed.
tan nah prabho tvam kukalevararpitam
bhindyama yenasu vayam sudurbhidam
vidhehi yogam tvayi nah svabhavam iti
tat--therefore; nah--our; prabho--O my Lord; tvam--You; ku-kalevara-arpitam--invested in this bad body full of stool and urine; tvat-mayaya--by Your illusory energy; aham-mamatam--the conception of "I and my"; adhoksaja--O Transcendence; bhindyama--may give up; yena--by which; asu--very soon; vayam--we; sudurbhidam--which is very difficult to give up; vidhehi--please give; yogam--the mystic process; tvayi--unto You; nah--our; svabhavam--which is symptomized by a steady mind; iti--thus.
Therefore, O Lord, O Transcendence, kindly help us by giving us the power to execute bhakti-yoga so that we can control our restless minds and fix them upon You. We are all infected by Your illusory energy; therefore we are very attached to the body, which is full of stool and urine, and to anything related with the body. Except for devotional service, there is no way to give up this attachment. Therefore kindly bestow upon us this benediction.
The Lord advises in Bhagavad-gita: man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru. The perfect yoga system consists of always thinking of Krsna, always engaging in devotional service, always worshiping Krsna and always offering obeisances unto Him. Unless we practice this yoga system, our illusory attachment for this bad body, which is full of stool and urine, is impossible to give up. The perfection of yoga consists of giving up attachment for this body and bodily relationships and transferring that attachment to Krsna. We are very attached to material enjoyment, but when we transfer that same attachment to Krsna, we traverse the path of liberation. One has to practice this yoga system and none other.
bharate 'py asmin varse saric-chailah santi bahavo malayo mangala-prastho mainakas trikuta rsabhah kutakah kollakah sahyo devagirir rsyamukah sri-sailo venkato mahendro varidharo vindhyah suktiman rksagirih pariyatro dronas citrakuto govardhano raivatakah kakubho nilo gokamukha indrakilah kamagirir iti canye ca sata-sahasrasah sailas tesam nitamba-prabhava nada nadyas ca santy asankhyatah.
bharate--in the land of Bharata-varsa; api--also; asmin--in this; varse--tract of land; sarit--rivers; sailah--mountains; santi--there are; bahavah--many; malayah--Malaya; mangala-prasthah--Mangala-prastha; mainakah--Mainaka; tri-kutah--Trikuta; rsabhah--Rsabha; kutakah--Kutaka; kollakah--Kollaka; sahyah--Sahya; devagirih--Devagiri; rsya-mukah--Rsyamuka; sri-sailah--Sri-saila; venkatah--Venkata; mahendrah--Mahendra; vari-dharah--Varidhara; vindhyah--Vindhya; suktiman--Suktiman; rksa-girih--Rksagiri; pariyatrah--Pariyatra; dronah--Drona; citra-kutah--Citrakuta; govardhanah--Govardhana; raivatakah--Raivataka; kakubhah--Kakubha; nilah--Nila; gokamukhah--Gokamukha; indrakilah--Indrakila; kama-girih--Kamagiri; iti--thus; ca--and; anye--others; ca--also; sata-sahasrasah--many hundreds and thousands; sailah--mountains; tesam--of them; nitamba-prabhavah--born of the slopes; nadah--big rivers; nadyah--small rivers; ca--and; santi--there are; asankhyatah--innumerable.
In the tract of land known as Bharata-varsa, as in Ilavrta-varsa, there are many mountains and rivers. Some of the mountains are known as Malaya, Mangala-prastha, Mainaka, Trikuta, Rsabha, Kutaka, Kollaka, Sahya, Devagiri, Rsyamuka, Sri-saila, Venkata, Mahendra, Varidhara, Vindhya, Suktiman, Rksagiri, Pariyatra, Drona, Citrakuta, Govardhana, Raivataka, Kakubha, Nila, Gokamukha, Indrakila and Kamagiri. Besides these, there are many other hills, with many large and small rivers flowing from their slopes.
etasam apo bharatyah praja namabhir eva punantinam atmana copasprsanti; candravasa tamraparni avatoda krtamala vaihayasi kaveri veni payasvini sarkaravarta tungabhadra krsnavenya bhimarathi godavari nirvindhya payosni tapi reva surasa narmada carmanvati sindhur andhah sonas ca nadau mahanadi vedasmrtir rsikulya trisama kausiki mandakini yamuna sarasvati drsadvati gomati sarayu rodhasvati saptavati susoma satadrus candrabhaga marudvrdha vitasta asikni visveti maha-nadyah.
etasam--of all these; apah--water; bharatyah--of Bharata-varsa (India); prajah--the residents; namabhih--by the names; eva--only; punantinam--are purifying; atmana--by the mind; ca--also; upasprsanti--touch; candra-vasa--Candravasa; tamra-parni--Tamraparni; avatoda--Avatoda; krta-mala--Krtamala; vaihayasi--Vaihayasi; kaveri--Kaveri; veni--Veni; payasvini--Payasvini; sarkaravarta--Sarkaravarta; tunga-bhadra--Tungabhadra; krsna-venya--Krsnavenya; bhima-rathi--Bhimarathi; godavari--Godavari; nirvindhya--Nirvindhya; payosni--Payosni; tapi--Tapi; reva--Reva; surasa--Surasa; narmada--Narmada; carmanvati--Carmanvati; sindhuh--Sindhu; andhah--Andha; sonah--Sona; ca--and; nadau--two rivers; maha-nadi--Mahanadi; veda-smrtih--Vedasmrti; rsi-kulya--Rsikulya; tri-sama--Trisama; kausiki--Kausiki; mandakini--Mandakini; yamuna--Yamuna; sarasvati--Sarasvati; drsadvati--Drsadvati; gomati--Gomati; sarayu--Sarayu; rodhasvati--Rodhasvati; saptavati--Saptavati; susoma--Susoma; sata-druh--Satadru; candrabhaga--Candrabhaga; marudvrdha--Marudvrdha; vitasta--Vitasta; asikni--Asikni; visva--Visva; iti--thus; maha-nadyah--big rivers.
Two of the rivers--the Brahmaputra and the Sona--are called nadas, or main rivers. These are other great rivers that are very prominent: Candravasa, Tamraparni, Avatoda, Krtamala, Vaihayasi, Kaveri, Veni, Payasvini, Sarkaravarta, Tungabhadra, Krsnavenya, Bhimarathi, Godavari, Nirvindhya, Payosni, Tapi, Reva, Surasa, Narmada, Carmanvati, Mahanadi, Vedasmrti, Rsikulya, Trisama, Kausiki, Mandakini, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Drsadvati, Gomati, Sarayu, Rodhasvati, Saptavati, Susoma, Satadru, Candrabhaga, Marudvrdha, Vitasta, Asikni and Visva. The inhabitants of Bharata-varsa are purified because they always remember these rivers. Sometimes they chant the names of these rivers as mantras, and sometimes they go directly to the rivers to touch them and bathe in them. Thus the inhabitants of Bharata-varsa become purified.
All these rivers are transcendental. Therefore one can be purified by remembering them, touching them or bathing in them. This practice is still going on.
asminn eva varse purusair labdha-janmabhih sukla-lohita-krsna-varnena svarabdhena karmana divya-manusa-naraka-gatayo bahvya atmana anupurvyena sarva hy eva sarvesam vidhiyante yatha-varna-vidhanam apavargas capi bhavati.
asmin eva varse--in this tract of land (Bharata-varsa); purusaih--by the people; labdha-janmabhih--who have taken birth; sukla--of the mode of goodness; lohita--of the mode of passion; krsna--of the mode of ignorance; varnena--according to the division; sva--by himself; arabdhena--begun; karmana--by activities; divya--divine; manusa--human; naraka--hellish; gatayah--goals; bahvyah--many; atmanah--of his own; anupurvyena--according to acts performed previously; sarvah--all; hi--certainly; eva--indeed; sarvesam--of all of them; vidhiyante--are allotted; yatha-varna-vidhanam--in terms of different castes; apavargah--the path of liberation; ca--and; api--also; bhavati--is possible.
The people who take birth in this tract of land are divided according to the qualities of material nature--the modes of goodness [sattva-guna], passion [rajo-guna], and ignorance [tamo-guna]. Some of them are born as exalted personalities, some are ordinary human beings, and some are extremely abominable, for in Bharata-varsa one takes birth exactly according to one's past karma. If one's position is ascertained by a bona fide spiritual master and one is properly trained to engage in the service of Lord Visnu according to the four social divisions [brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra] and the four spiritual divisions [brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa], one's life becomes perfect.
For further information, one should refer to Bhagavad-gita (14.18 and 18.42-45). Srila Ramanujacarya writes in his book Vedanta-sangraha:
evam-vidha-parabhakti-svarupa-jnana-visesasyotpadakah purvoktaharahar upaciyamana-jnana-purvaka-karmanugrhita-bhakti-yoga eva; yathoktam bhagavata parasarena----varnasrameti. nikhila-jagad-uddharanayavanitale 'vatirnam para-brahma-bhutah purusottamah svayam etad uktavan----"svakarma-niratah siddhim yatha vindati tac chrnu" "yatah pravrttir bhutanam yena sarvam idam tatam . svakarmana tam abhyarcya siddhim vindati manavah"
Quoting from the Visnu Purana (389), the great sage Parasara Muni has recommended:
purusena parah puman
visnur aradhyate pantha
"The Supreme personality of Godhead, Lord Visnu, is worshiped by the proper execution of prescribed duties in the system of varna and asrama. There is no other way to satisfy the Lord." In the land of Bharata-varsa, the institution of varnasrama-dharma may be easily adopted. At the present moment, certain demoniac sections of the population of Bharatavarsa are disregarding the system of varnasrama-dharma. Because there is no institution to teach people how to become brahmanas, ksatriyas, vaisyas and sudras or brahmacaris, grhasthas, vanaprasthas and sannyasis, these demons want a classless society. This is resulting in chaotic conditions. In the name of secular government, unqualified people are taking the supreme governmental posts. No one is being trained to act according to the principles of varnasrama-dharma, and thus people are becoming increasingly degraded and are heading in the direction of animal life. The real aim of life is liberation, but unfortunately the opportunity for liberation is being denied to people in general, and therefore their human lives are being spoiled. The Krsna consciousness movement, however, is being propagated all over the world to reestablish the varnasrama-dharma system and thus save human society from gliding down to hellish life.
yo 'sau bhagavati sarva-bhutatmany anatmye 'nirukte 'nilayane paramatmani vasudeve 'nanya-nimitta-bhakti-yoga-laksano nana-gati-nimittavidya-granthi-randhana-dvarena yada hi maha-purusa-purusa-prasangah.
yah--anyone who; asau--that; bhagavati--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva-bhuta-atmani--the Supersoul of all living entities; anatmye--having no attachment; anirukte--who is beyond the mind and speech; anilayane--not dependent on anything else; parama-atmani--unto the Supreme Soul; vasudeve--Lord Vasudeva, the son of Vasudeva; ananya--without any other; nimitta--cause; bhakti-yoga-laksanah--having symptoms of pure devotional service; nana-gati--of varied destinations; nimitta--the cause; avidya-granthi--the bondage of ignorance; randhana--of cutting; dvarena--by means; yada--when; hi--indeed; maha-purusa--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; purusa--with the devotee; prasangah--an intimate relationship.
After many, many births, when the results of one's pious activities mature, one gets an opportunity to associate with pure devotees. Then one is able to cut the knot of bondage to ignorance, which bound him because of varied fruitive activities. As a result of associating with devotees, one gradually renders service to Lord Vasudeva, who is transcendental, free from attachment to the material world, beyond the mind and words, and independent of everything else. That bhakti-yoga, devotional service to Lord Vasudeva, is the real path of liberation.
Brahman realization is the beginning of liberation, and Paramatma realization is still further advancement toward the realm of liberation, but one achieves real liberation when he understands his position as an eternal servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (muktir hitvanyatha rupam svarupena vyavasthitih). In the material world, in the bodily concept of life, everyone is working in the wrong direction. When one becomes brahma-bhuta, spiritually realized, one understands that he is not the body and that working in the bodily concept of life is useless and misdirected. Then his devotional service begins. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (18.54):
na socati na kanksati
samah sarvesu bhutesu
mad-bhaktim labhate param
"One who is thus transcendentally situated realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments or desires to have anything; he is equally disposed to every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me." Devotional service is actual liberation. When one is attracted by the beauty of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and his mind is always engaged at the Lord's lotus feet, he is no longer interested in subjects that do not help him in self-realization. In other words, he loses all attraction for material activities. In the Taittiriya Upanisad (2.7) it is said: esa hy evanandayati. yada hy evaisa etasmin na drsye 'natmye anirukte 'nilayane 'bhayam pratistham vindate 'tha so 'bhayam gato bhavati. A living entity becomes established in spiritual, blissful life when he fully understands that his happiness depends on spiritual self-realization, which is the basic principle of ananda (bliss), and when he is eternally situated in the service of the Lord, who has no other lord above Him.
etad eva hi deva gayanti----
aho amisam kim akari sobhanam
prasanna esam svid uta svayam harih
yair janma labdham nrsu bharatajire
mukunda-sevaupayikam sprha hi nah
etat--this; eva--indeed; hi--certainly; devah--all the demigods; gayanti--chant; aho--oh; amisam--of these inhabitants of Bharatavarsa; kim--what; akari--was done; sobhanam--pious, beautiful activities; prasannah--pleased; esam--upon them; svit--or; uta--it is said; svayam--personally; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yaih--by whom; janma--birth; labdham--obtained; nrsu--in human society; bharata-ajire--in the courtyard of Bharata-varsa; mukunda--the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can offer liberation; seva-aupayikam--which is the means of serving; sprha--desire; hi--indeed; nah--our.
Since the human form of life is the sublime position for spiritual realization, all the demigods in heaven speak in this way: How wonderful it is for these human beings to have been born in the land of Bharata-varsa. They must have executed pious acts of austerity in the past, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself must have been pleased with them. Otherwise, how could they engage in devotional service in so many ways? We demigods can only aspire to achieve human births in Bharata-varsa to execute devotional service, but these human beings are already engaged there.
These facts are further explained in Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi 9.41):
bharata-bhumite haila manusya-janma yara
janma sarthaka kari' kara para-upakara
"One who has taken his birth as a human being in the land of India [Bharata-varsa] should make his life successful and work for the benefit of all other people."
There are many facilities in India, Bharata-varsa, for executing devotional service. In Bharata-varsa, all the acaryas contributed their experience, and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu personally appeared to teach the people of Bharata-varsa how to progress in spiritual life and be fixed in devotional service to the Lord. From all points of view, Bharata-varsa is the special land where one can very easily understand the process of devotional service and adopt it to make his life successful. If one makes his life successful in devotional service and then preaches devotional service in other parts of the world, people throughout the world will actually benefit.
kim duskarair nah kratubhis tapo-vratair
danadibhir va dyujayena phalguna
na yatra narayana-pada-pankaja-
kim--what is the value; duskaraih--very difficult to perform; nah--our; kratubhih--with performances of sacrifice; tapah--with austerities; vrataih--vows; dana-adibhih--with executing charitable activities and so on; va--or; dyujayena--with achieving the heavenly kingdom; phalguna--which is insignificant; na--no; yatra--where; narayana-pada-pankaja--of the lotus feet of Lord Narayana; smrtih--the remembrance; pramusta--lost; atisaya--excessive; indriya-utsavat--due to material sense gratification.
The demigods continue: After performing the very difficult tasks of executing Vedic ritualistic sacrifices, undergoing austerities, observing vows and giving charity, we have achieved this position as inhabitants of the heavenly planets. But what is the value of this achievement? Here we are certainly very engaged in material sense gratification, and therefore we can hardly remember the lotus feet of Lord Narayana. Indeed, because of our excessive sense gratification, we have almost forgotten His lotus feet.
The land of Bharata-varsa is so exalted that by taking birth there one can not only attain the heavenly planets but also go directly back home, back to Godhead. As Krsna says in Bhagavad-gita (9.25):
yanti deva-vrata devan
pitrn yanti pitr-vratah
bhutani yanti bhutejya
yanti mad-yajino 'pi mam
"Those who worship the demigods will take birth among the demigods; those who worship ghosts and spirits will take birth among such beings; those who worship ancestors go to the ancestors; and those who worship Me will live with Me." people in the land of Bharata-varsa generally follow the Vedic principles and consequently perform great sacrifices by which they can be elevated to the heavenly planets. However, what is the use of such great attainments? As stated in Bhagavad-gita (9.21), ksine punye martya-lokam visanti: after the results of one's sacrifices, charity and other pious activities expire, one must return to the lower planetary systems and again feel the pangs of birth and death. However, one who becomes Krsna conscious can go back to Krsna (yanti-mad-yajino 'pi mam). Therefore the demigods even regret having been elevated to the higher planetary systems. The denizens of the heavenly planets regret that they could not take full advantage of being born in the land of Bharata-varsa. Instead, they became captivated by a higher standard of sense gratification, and therefore they forgot the lotus feet of Lord Narayana at the time of death. The conclusion is that one who has taken birth in the land of Bharata-varsa must follow the instructions given personally by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Yad gatva na nivartante tad dhama paramam mama. One should try to return home, back to Godhead, to the Vaikuntha planets--or to the topmost Vaikuntha planet, Goloka Vrndavana--to live eternally in full, blissful knowledge in the company of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
kalpayusam sthanajayat punar-bhavat
ksanayusam bharata-bhujayo varam
ksanena martyena krtam manasvinah
sannyasya samyanty abhayam padam hareh
kalpa-ayusam--of those who have a life duration of many millions of years, like Lord Brahma; sthana-jayat--than achievement of the place or planetary systems; punah-bhavat--which is liable to birth, death and old age; ksana-ayusam--of persons who have only one hundred years of life; bharata-bhu-jayah--a birth in the land of Bharata-varsa; varam--more valuable; ksanena--for such a short life; martyena--by the body; krtam--the work executed; manasvinah--those actually understanding the value of life; sannyasya--surrendering unto the lotus feet of Krsna; samyanti--they achieve; abhayam--where there is no anxiety; padam--the abode; hareh--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
A short life in the land of Bharata-varsa is preferable to a life achieved in Brahmaloka for millions and billions of years because even if one is elevated to Brahmaloka, he must return to repeated birth and death. Although life in Bharata-varsa, in a lower planetary system, is very short, one who lives there can elevate himself to full Krsna consciousness and achieve the highest perfection, even in this short life, by fully surrendering unto the lotus feet of the Lord. Thus one attains Vaikunthaloka, where there is neither anxiety nor repeated birth in a material body.
This is further confirmation of the statement given by Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu:
bharata-bhumite haila manusya-janma yara
janma sarthaka kari' kara para-upakara
One who has taken birth in the land of Bharata-varsa has a full opportunity to study the direct instructions given by Krsna in Bhagavad-gita and thus finally decide what to do in his human form of life. One should certainly give up all other propositions and surrender to Krsna. Krsna will then immediately take charge and relieve one of the results of past sinful life (aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami ma sucah). Therefore one should take to Krsna consciousness, as Krsna Himself recommends. Man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru: "Always think of Me, become My devotee, worship Me and offer Me obeisances." This is very easy, even for a child. Why not take this path? One should try to follow the instructions of Krsna exactly and thus become fully eligible to be promoted to the kingdom of God (tyaktva deham punar janma naiti mam eti so'rjuna). One should go directly to Krsna and engage in His service. This is the best opportunity offered to the inhabitants of Bharata-varsa. One who is fit to return home, back to Godhead, is no longer liable to the results of karma, good or bad.
na yatra vaikuntha-katha-sudhapaga
na sadhavo bhagavatas tadasrayah
na yatra yajnesa-makha mahotsavah
suresa-loko 'pi na vai sa sevyatam
na--not; yatra--where; vaikuntha-katha-sudha-apagah--the nectarean rivers of discussions about the Supreme personality of Godhead, who is called Vaikuntha, or one who drives away all anxiety; na--nor; sadhavah--devotees; bhagavatah--always engaged in the service of the Lord; tat-asrayah--who are sheltered by the Supreme personality of Godhead; na--nor; yatra--where; yajna-isa-makhah--the performance of devotional service to the Lord of sacrifices; maha-utsavah--which are actual festivals; suresa-lokah--a place inhabited by the denizens of heaven; api--although; na--not; vai--certainly; sah--that; sevyatam--be frequented.
An intelligent person does not take interest in a place, even in the topmost planetary system, if the pure Ganges of topics concerning the Supreme Lord's activities does not flow there, if there are not devotees engaged in service on the banks of such a river of piety, or if there are no festivals of sankirtana-yajna to satisfy the Lord [especially since sankirtana-yajna is recommended in this age].
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared in the land of Bharata-varsa, specifically in Bengal, in the district of Nadia, where Navadvipa is situated. It is therefore to be concluded, as stated by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, that within this universe, this earth is the best planet, and on this planet the land of Bharata-varsa is the best; in the land of Bharatavarsa, Bengal is still better, in Bengal the district of Nadia is still better, and in Nadia the best place is Navadvipa because Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared there to inaugurate the performance of the sacrifice of chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. The sastras recommend:
yajanti hi sumedhasah
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always accompanied by His very confidential associates such as Sri Nityananda, Sri Gadadhara and Sri Advaita and by many devotees like Srivasa. They are always engaged in chanting the name of the Lord and are always describing Lord Krsna. Therefore this is the best among all the places in the universe. The Krsna consciousness movement has established its center in Mayapur, the birthsite of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, to give men the great opportunity to go there and perform a constant festival of sankirtana-yajna, as recommended herein (yajnesa-makha mahotsavah) and to distribute prasada to millions of hungry people hankering for spiritual emancipation. This is the mission of the Krsna consciousness movement. Caitanya-bhagavata confirms this as follows: "One should not desire to be elevated even to a place in the heavenly planetary systems if it has no propaganda to expand the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, no trace of Vaisnavas, pure devotees of the Lord, and no festivals for spreading Krsna consciousness. It would be better to live perpetually cramped within the airtight bag of a mother's womb, where one can at least remember the lotus feet of the Lord, than to live in a place where there is no opportunity to remember His lotus feet. I pray not to be allowed to take birth in such a condemned place." Similarly, in Caitanya-caritamrta, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami says that since Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the inaugurator of the sankirtana movement, anyone who performs sankirtana to please the Lord is very, very glorious. Such a person has perfect intelligence, whereas others are in the ignorance of material existence. Of all the sacrifices mentioned in the Vedic literatures, the performance of sankirtana-yajna is the best. Even the performance of one hundred asvamedha sacrifices cannot compare to the sacrifice of sankirtana. According to the author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, if one compares sankirtana-yajna to other yajnas, he is a pasandi, an infidel, and is liable to be punished by Yamaraja. There are many Mayavadis who think that the performance of sankirtana-yajna is a pious activity similar to the performance of the asvamedha-yajna and other such pious functions, but this is a nama-aparadha. Chanting of the holy name of Narayana and chanting of other names are never equal, despite what Mayavadis think.
prapta nr-jatim tv iha ye ca jantavo
na vai yaterann apunar-bhavaya te
bhuyo vanauka iva yanti bandhanam
praptah--who have obtained; nr-jatim--a birth in human society; tu--certainly; iha--in this land of Bharata-varsa; ye--those who; ca--also; jantavah--the living beings; jnana--with knowledge; kriya--with activities; dravya--of ingredients; kalapa--with a collection; sambhrtam--full; na--not; vai--certainly; yateran--endeavor; apunah-bhavaya--for the position of immortality; te--such persons; bhuyah--again; vanaukah--birds; iva--like; yanti--go; bandhanam--to bondage.
Bharata-varsa offers the proper land and circumstances in which to execute devotional service, which can free one from the results of jnana and karma. If one obtains a human body in the land of Bharata-varsa, with clear sensory organs with which to execute the sankirtana-yajna, but in spite of this opportunity he does not take to devotional service, he is certainly like liberated forest animals and birds that are careless and are therefore again bound by a hunter.
In the land of Bharata-varsa one can very easily perform the sankirtana-yajna, which consists of sravanam kirtanam visnoh, or one can perform other methods of devotional service, such as smaranam vandanam arcanam dasyam sakhyam and atma-nivedanam. In Bharata-varsa one has the opportunity to visit many holy places, especially Lord Caitanya's birthsite and Lord Krsna's birthsite--Navadvipa and Vrndavana--where there are many pure devotees who have no desire other than to execute devotional service (anyabhilasita-sunyam jnana-karmady-anavrtam), and one may thus become free from the bondage of material conditions. Other paths, such as the path of jnana and the path of karma, are not very profitable. Pious activities can elevate one to the higher planetary systems, and by speculative knowledge one can merge into the Brahman existence, but that is not real profit, for one has to come down again even from the liberated condition of being merged in Brahman, and certainly one must come down from the heavenly kingdom. One should endeavor to go back home, back to Godhead (yanti mad-yajino 'pi mam). Otherwise there is no difference between human life and the lives of jungle animals and birds. Animals and birds also have freedom, but because of their lower birth, they cannot use it. Taking advantage of all the facilities offered him, a human being who has taken birth in the land of Bharata-varsa should become a fully enlightened devotee and go back home, back to Godhead. This is the subject matter of the Krsna consciousness movement. The inhabitants of places other than Bharata-varsa have facilities for material enjoyment, but they do not have the same facility to take to Krsna consciousness. Therefore Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has advised that one who has taken birth as a human being in Bharata-varsa must first realize himself as a part and parcel of Krsna, and after taking to Krsna consciousness, he must distribute this knowledge all over the world.
yaih sraddhaya barhisi bhagaso havir
niruptam istam vidhi-mantra-vastutah
ekah prthan-namabhir ahuto muda
grhnati purnah svayam asisam prabhuh
yaih--by whom (the inhabitants of Bharata-varsa); sraddhaya--faith and confidence; barhisi--in the performance of Vedic ritualistic sacrifices; bhagasah--by division; havih--oblations; niruptam--offered; istam--to the desired deity; vidhi--by the proper method; mantra--by reciting mantras; vastutah--with the proper ingredients; ekah--that one Supreme Personality of Godhead; prthak--separate; namabhih--by names; ahutah--called; muda--with great happiness; grhnati--He accepts; purnah--the Supreme Lord. who is full in Himself; svayam--personally; asisam--of all benedictions; prabhuh--the bestower.
In India [Bharata-varsa], there are many worshipers of the demigods, the various officials appointed by the Supreme Lord, such as Indra, Candra and Surya, all of whom are worshiped differently. The worshipers offer the demigods their oblations, considering the demigods part and parcel of the whole, the Supreme Lord. Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead accepts these offerings and gradually raises the worshipers to the real standard of devotional service by fulfilling their desires and aspirations. Because the Lord is complete, He offers the worshipers the benedictions they desire even if they worship only part of His transcendental body.
In Bhagavad-gita (9.13) Lord Krsna says:
mahatmanas tu mam partha
daivim prakrtim asritah
jnatva bhutadim avyayam
"O son of Prtha, those who are not deluded, the great souls, are under the protection of the divine nature. They are fully engaged in devotional service because they know Me as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, original and inexhaustible." Mahatma, advanced devotees, worship only the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Others, however, who are also sometimes called mahatmas, worship the Lord as ekatvena prthaktvena. In other words, they accept the demigods as different parts of Krsna and worship them for various benedictions. Although the devotees of the demigods thus achieve the desired results offered by Krsna, they have been described in Bhagavad-gita as hrta jnana, not very intelligent. Krsna does not desire to be worshiped indirectly through the different parts of His body; Krsna wants direct devotional worship. Therefore a devotee who directly worships Lord Krsna through staunch devotional service, as recommended in Srimad-Bhagavatam, (tivrena bhakti-yogena yajeta purusam param), is very quickly elevated to the transcendental position. Nevertheless, devotees who worship the demigods, the different parts of the Lord, receive the benedictions they desire because the Lord is the original master of all benedictions. If anyone wants a particular benediction, for the Lord to award it is not at all difficult.
satyam disaty arthitam arthito nrnam
naivarthado yat punar arthita yatah
svayam vidhatte bhajatam anicchatam
satyam--certainly; disati--He offers; arthitam--the object prayed for; arthitah--being prayed to; nrnam--by the human beings; na--not; eva--indeed; artha-dah--the bestower of benedictions; yat--which; punah--again; arthita--a demand for a benediction; yatah--from which; svayam--personally; vidhatte--He gives; bhajatam--unto those engaged in His service; anicchatam--although not desiring it; iccha-pidhanam--which covers all desirable things; nija-pada-pallavam--His own lotus feet.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead fulfills the material desires of a devotee who approaches Him with such motives, but He does not bestow benedictions upon the devotee that will cause him to demand more benedictions again. However, the Lord willingly gives the devotee shelter at His own lotus feet, even though such a person does not aspire for it, and that shelter satisfies all his desires. That is the Supreme Personality's special mercy.
The devotees mentioned in the previous verse approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead with material motives, but this verse explains how such devotees are saved from those desires. Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.3.10) advises:
akamah sarva-kamo va
yajeta purusam param
"Whether one is freed from all material desires, is full of material desires, or desires to become one with the Supreme, he should engage in devotional service." In this way, not only will the devotee's desires be fulfilled, but the day will come when he will have no other desire than to serve the lotus feet of the Lord. One who engages in the service of the Lord with some motive is called a sakama-bhakta, and one who serves the Lord without any motives is called an akama-bhakta. Krsna is so merciful that He turns a sakama-bhakta into an akama-bhakta. A pure devotee, an akama-bhakta, who has no material motives, is satisfied simply to serve the lotus feet of the Lord. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (6.22). Yam labdhva caparam labham manyate nadhikam tatah: if one engages in the service of the lotus feet of the Lord, he does not want anything more. This is the highest stage of devotional service. The Lord is so kind even to a sakama-bhakta, a motivated devotee, that He satisfies his desires in such a way that one day he becomes an akama-bhakta. Dhruva Maharaja, for example, became a bhakta with the motive of getting a better kingdom than that of his father, but finally he became an akama-bhakta and said to the Lord, svamin krtartho'smi varam na yace: "My dear Lord, I am very satisfied simply to serve Your lotus feet. I do not want any material benefits." Sometimes it is found that a small child eats dirty things, but his parents take away the dirty things and offer him a sandesa or some other sweetmeat. Devotees who aspire for material benedictions are compared to such children. The Lord is so kind that He takes away their material desires and gives them the highest benediction. Therefore, even for material motives, one should not worship anyone other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead; one must fully engage himself in the devotional service of the Lord so that all his desires will be fulfilled and at the end he can go back home, back to Godhead. This is explained in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 22.37-39, 41) as follows.
Anyakami--a devotee may desire something other than service to the lotus feet of the Lord; yadi kare krsnera bhajana--but if he engages in Lord Krsna's service; na magiteha krsna tare dena sva-carana--Krsna gives him shelter at His lotus feet, even though he does not aspire for it. Krsna kahe--the Lord says; ama bhaje--"He is engaged in My service"; mage visaya-sukha--"but he wants the benefits of material sense gratification." Amrta chadi' visa mage:--"such a devotee is like a person who asks for poison instead of nectar." Ei bada murkha: "That is his foolishness." Ami-vijna: "But I am experienced." Ei murkhe 'visaya' kene diba: "Why should I give such a foolish person the dirty things of material enjoyment?" Sva-carana-mrta: "It would be better for Me to give him shelter at My lotus feet." 'Visaya' bhulaiba: "I shall cause him to forget all material desires." Kama lagi' krsna bhaje--if one engages in the service of the Lord for sense gratification; paya krsna-rase--the result is that he ultimately gets a taste for serving the lotus feet of the Lord. Kama chadi' 'da' haite haya abhilase: He then gives up all material desires and wants to become an eternal servant of the Lord.
yady atra nah svarga-sukhavasesitam
svistasya suktasya krtasya sobhanam
tenajanabhe smrtimaj janma nah syad
varse harir yad-bhajatam sam tanoti
yadi--if; atra--in this heavenly planet; nah--of us; svarga-sukha-avasesitam--whatever remains after the enjoyment of heavenly happiness; su-istasya--of a perfect sacrifice; su-uktasya--of diligently studying the Vedic literature; krtasya--of having performed a kind act; sobhanam--the resultant actions; tena--by such a resultant action; ajanabhe--in the land of Bharata-varsa; smrti-mat janma--a birth enabling one to remember the lotus feet of the Lord; nah--of us; syat--let there be; varse--in the land; harih--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yat--wherein; bhajatam--of the devotees; sam tanoti--expands the auspiciousness.
We are now living in the heavenly planets, undoubtedly as a result of our having performed ritualistic ceremonies, pious activities and yajnas and having studied the Vedas. However, our lives here will one day be finished. We pray that at that time, if any merit remains from our pious activities, we may again take birth in Bharata-varsa as human beings able to remember the lotus feet of the Lord. The Lord is so kind that He personally comes to the land of Bharata-varsa and expands the good fortune of its people.
It is certainly as a result of pious activities that one takes birth in the heavenly planets, but from those planets one must nevertheless come down again to earth, as stated in Bhagavad-gita (ksine punye martya-lokam visanti). Even the demigods must return to earth to work like ordinary men when the results of their pious activities expire. Nevertheless, the demigods desire to come to the land of Bharata-varsa if even a small portion of the merits of their pious activities remains. In other words, to take birth in Bharata-varsa, one must perform more pious activities than the demigods. In Bharata-varsa one is naturally Krsna conscious, and if one further cultivates his Krsna consciousness, by the grace of Krsna he certainly expands his good fortune by becoming perfect in Krsna consciousness and very easily going back home, back to Godhead. In many other places in the Vedic literature it is found that even the demigods want to come to this land of Bharata-varsa. A foolish person may desire to be promoted to the heavenly planets as a result of his pious activities, but even the demigods from the heavenly planets want to come to Bharata-varsa and achieve bodies that may be very easily used to cultivate Krsna consciousness. Therefore Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu repeatedly says:
bharata-bhumite haila manusya-janma yara
janma sarthaka kari' kara para-upakara
A human being born in the land of Bharata-varsa has the special prerogative to develop Krsna consciousness. Therefore those already born in Bharata-varsa should take lessons from the sastras and guru and should fully take advantage of the mercy of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in order to be fully equipped with Krsna consciousness. By taking full advantage of Krsna consciousness, one goes back home, back to Godhead (yanti mad-yajino 'pi mam). The Krsna consciousness movement is therefore spreading this facility to human society by opening many, many centers all over the world so that people may associate with the pure devotees of the Krsna consciousness movement, understand the science of Krsna consciousness and ultimately go back home, back to Godhead.
jambudvipasya ca rajann upadvipan astau haika upadisanti sagaratmajair asvanvesana imam mahim parito nikhanadbhir upakalpitan; tad yatha svarnaprasthas candrasukla avartano ramanako mandaraharinah pancajanyah simhalo lanketi.
sri-sukah uvaca--Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued to speak; jambudvipasya--of the island known as Jambudvipa; ca--also; rajan--O King; upadvipan astau--eight subordinate islands; ha--certainly; eke--some; upadisanti--learned scholars describe; sagara-atma-jaih--by the sons of Maharaja Sagara; asva-anvesane--while trying to find their lost horse; imam--this; mahim--tract of land; paritah--all around; nikhanadbhih--digging; upakalpitan--created; tat--that; yatha--as follows; svarna-prasthah--Svarnaprastha; candra-suklah--Candrasukla; avartanah--Avartana; ramanakah--Ramanaka; mandara-harinah--Mandara-harina; pancajanyah--Pancajanya; simhalah--Simhala; lanka--Lanka; iti--thus.
Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King, in the opinion of some learned scholars, eight smaller islands surround Jambudvipa. When the sons of Maharaja Sagara were searching all over the world for their lost horse, they dug up the earth, and in this way eight adjoining islands came into existence. The names of these islands are Svarnaprastha, Candrasukla, Avartana, Ramanaka, Mandara-harina, Pancajanya, Simhala and Lanka.
In the Kurma Purana there is this statement about the desires of the demigods:
Although the demigods are situated in exalted positions in the heavenly planets, they nevertheless desire to descend to the land of Bharata-varsa on the planet earth. This indicates that even the demigods are unfit to reside in Bharata-varsa. Therefore if persons already born in Bharatavarsa live like cats and dogs, not taking full advantage of their birth in this land, they are certainly unfortunate.
evam tava bharatottama jambudvipa-varsa-vibhago yathopadesam upavarnita iti.
evam--thus; tava--unto you; bharata-uttama--O best of the descendents of Bharata; jambudvipa-varsa-vibhagah--the divisions of the island of Jambudvipa; yatha-upadesam--as much as I am instructed by the authorities; upavarnitah--explained; iti--thus.
My dear King Pariksit, O best of the descendants of Bharata Maharaja, I have thus described to you, as I myself have been instructed, the island of Bharata-varsa and its adjoining islands. These are the islands that constitute Jambudvipa.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fifth Canto, Nineteenth Chapter of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, entitled "A Description of the Island of Jambudvipa."