Major work on 'Big Bang' completed
The last of 53 replacement magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been lowered into the 16-mile tunnel straddling the Swiss-French border which houses the machine.
Scientists said they were on track to re-start the particle accelerator in the autumn.
The LHC, based at the Swiss headquarters of the European nuclear research organisation Cern, was switched on in September last year amid a fanfare of publicity.
But just 10 days later an electrical fault led to a catastrophic leak of helium used to cool the machine's powerful magnets, causing a complete shut-down.
The LHC is designed to collide sub-atomic particles together at energies never before attained.
It will re-create the conditions moments after the Big Bang which gave birth to the universe 13.7 billion years ago.
A key aim of the LHC is to find the elusive Higgs Boson - nicknamed the "God Particle" - which is believed by theoretical physicists to explain the existence of mass.
There is also a chance of the machine creating tiny short-lived black holes, a fact which led to some wild speculation about the Earth being doomed by out-of-control experiments.
The super-cooled magnets are used to drive the particles around the LHC's ring-shaped tunnel.
Copyright © 2009 The Press Association.
This Maha-Visnu, who is creating innumerable universes by breathing... Just like sometimes we breathe and there are some germs, small, we cannot see; in the same way, the universes in a small minute form, they are coming out of the breathing of Maha-Visnu. That is Karana-toya-sayi, karana-udaka, Causal Ocean. That is beginning of creation. Then all the universes, they gradually develop into gigantic form. In the originally, it is coming out. We cannot understand. Sometimes we become surprised that "How such innumerable universes are being created by a person?" So, the universe is not so big in the beginning. Just like our, this body is not so big in the beginning of our body within the womb of our mother. It is not so big. It is very small, minute, and then it becomes just like a pea, and gradually the body develops. The same process is applicable to the universes. In the beginning, they are coming out of the breathing of Karana-toya-sayi Visnu, and then gradually they are developed brhannatvat, brhatvat. It increases gradually. That Karana-toya-sayi Visnu is also Sankarsana. And then Garbhodakasayi. The universes are created. Then, when they develop, then same Visnu, Maha-Visnu, enters into each universe, and He creates an ocean. That is called Garbhoda Ocean. And He lies down there on Sesa-Naga, And then, from the navel, the lotus flower sprouts, and then Lord Brahma is created. Then, after many years tapasya, tapo, he understands how to create. In this way the whole creation of universes takes place. Garbhodakasayi. And after creation of this universe, then same Visnu, Garbhodakasayi, within this universe He creates His own Vaikuntha where there is an ocean of milk. There are different kinds of oceans, we learn from sastra. We have got experience of the salted ocean, but there are many other oceans, just like milk ocean and ghee ocean, oil ocean and yogurt ocean. There are. We get this information from the sastra.
So the Maha-Visnu, first of all He enters in each universe as Garbhodakasayi. Then, within the universe, He creates His Vaikuntha and lies down there--Ksirodakasayi. This Ksirodakasayi Visnu is approached by the demigods when there is need of maintenance or for subsiding the disturbance by the demons. Then Brahma, Lord Siva and others, they go on the beach of this milk ocean and submit their appeal. Then the answer is given to Brahma, and he informs to other demigods. This is the process. You'll find this later on. So payobdhi-sayi and sesas ca, Sesa, that is also incarnation of Visnu. He is sustaining the body of Visnu in different oceans, and He is serving the Lord Visnu in so many ways. Sayya, asana, sitting place, bed, and upavita, and clothes, garments--so many ways He is serving. Now, all these different incarnation of Visnu is summarized here by Kaviraja Gosvami that "All of them are partial expansion of Nityananda," to understand what is Nityananda Prabhu. The prakasa-vigraha... Krsna first. Then His prakasa-vigraha, manifested form, a little difference in bodily feature, but the same powerful, that is Balarama. And then, from Balarama, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, in this way, quadruple expansion... Then Narayana, then another quadruple expansion, then from that quadruple, second manifestation of Sankarsana, all these different Visnus, Karana-toyasayi, Garbhodakasayi, Ksirodhi-sayi--in this way, expanding. Diparcir eva hi dasantaram abhyupetya. Just like you take one candle, then you lit up another candle, another candle, another candle. All these candles are equally powerful, but still, the calculation is, Krsna is the first candle, Balarama is the second candle. In this way, visnutaya vibhati--the expansion of Visnu, innumerable.
Advaita acyuta anadi ananta-rupam. This Ksirodakasayi Visnu is the person who is situated in everyone's, every living being's, heart. Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati. That isvara, antaryami, who is existing in everyone's heart, that is Ksirodakasayi Visnu. Not only within the heart of all living entities, but He is within the atom also. Andantara-stha-paramanu-caya... Paramanu. Paramanu means atom. In this way Visnu expansion are there. It is inconceivable for us, but by the grace of Krsna, we can partially understand from the description of the sastras. Otherwise we cannot imagine how these things can happen, but it happens. We have to accept. Sastra-caksusah. We have to see through the pages of sastra. Otherwise it is not possible. So if we want to know Visnu-tattva, if we want to know Krsna, His exalted position, then here are the description of the sastra, and if we take them as it is, without malinterpretation, without showing any extraordinary intelligence by us... It is not possible. We have to accept. Therefore the injunction is that you accept the statement of the sastras. That is... Bhagavad-gita also said, yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya vartate-kama-karatah: "If you do not follow the description of the sastra and if you manufacture something," then na siddhim sa avapnoti, "then you'll never get perfection." We have to follow the sastra; otherwise there is no other alternative to understand the exalted position of Krsna, how He expands in different forms, as Visnu, as Narayana. Sometimes they argue that Krsna is incarnation of Visnu. That is also truth. You'll find in Caitanya... Truth in this way, that when any incarnation comes, He comes through the Ksirobdhi-sayi Visnu. But Ksirobdhi-sayi is partial expansion of Krsna. The subject matter is very intricate, but if we follow the sastra and accept it, then some clear conception we can have.